TEMPLES OF THIRUVANATHAPURAM


Religious History Antiquity and deities Administration
Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple Navaneetha Krishna Swami Temple Sri Janardhana Swamy Temple
SivaTemple,Aruvippuram
SreeKrishna Temple,Malayinkeezhu Bhadrakali Temple,Vellayani
ParasuramaTemple, Thiruvallam Thrimoorthy Temple, Mithranandapuram
Mahadeva Temple, Kazhakoottam Sankaranarayana Temple, Navayikulam
Maha Vishnu Temple,Vamanapuram Madavoorpara Rock Cut Temple

The name Thiruvananthapuram derived from the combination of words Thiru Anantha Puram, the abode of the sacred snake-god Anantha on whom Lord Vishnu reclines. Thiruvananthapuram was under the Aye dynasty till 10th century A.D. Thereafter, Venady dynasty came into existence. Even before Thiruvananthapuram became the capital city of Venad kingdom and erstwhile Travancore, it had attained the status of a temple town. More than 2000 temples are there in and around Thiruvananthapuram. Temples in Thiruvananthapuram were not merely places of worship but the centre of excellence of Vedic education and cultural renaissance. The Travancore Princes dedicated the country to their tutelary deity, Lord Padmanabha of Padmanabhaswamy Temple, and they ruled the country as the servants of Lord Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu).

Religious History

In the ancient days, the people followed an independent religious philosophy related with Dravidian practices. Around 3rd Century B.C., Jainism and Buddhism came into the district. It was the Jainism that set foot in the region. For more than 700 years, Buddhism flourished in Kerala. The Paliyam Copper plate of the Ay King, Varaguna (885-925AD) shows that at least in South Kerala, Buddhists continued to enjoy royal patronage even until 1000 AD. Revival of Hinduism by Brahmin scholars in 800-1000 AD gradually wiped out Buddhism from Kerala. It is believed that many Hindu temples in the region were originally Jain temples or Buddha shrines. Jain temple at Chitharal, near Thiruvananthapuram is an indication of the presence of Jainism in Thiruvananthapuram. Some historians are of opinion that rock cut temple at Vizhinjam and Madavoorpara were either Jain temples or Buddhist shrines. Some argue that Buddha continued to be worshipped as Sastha or Ayyappa in Kerala and the recital of Swami Sharanam has been derived from Budham Sharanam. Efforts of Sri Sankaracharya and Bhakthi movement donated much for the promotion of Hinduism. Contributions of Thunchath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathirippad, Poonthanam Namboodiri, Kunchan Nambiar etc. accelerated the Bhakthi movement. However, a stratified society formed in Kerala causing divisions based on caste and social evils like untouchability. People belonging to lower castes were not allowed to enter temples. Chattambi Swamikal and Sree Narayana Guru, two renowned saints played significant roles for uplifting the down-trodden and against the evil practices in the society. Sree Narayana Guru even consecrated idols of deities by himself at a time when lower castes were denied permission to enter into temples. Agitations like Vaikom Sathyagraha, Guruvayur Sathyagraha for temple entry and revolutionary movements that took place in the early 20th century paved path to Temple Entry Proclamation of 1936 by the Maharajah of erstwhile Travancore. The temples of erstwhile Travancore including the district were opened to all Hindu believers irrespective of caste.
Though Christianity came to Kerala in 52 A.D., it did not make serious impact on the religious thoughts of the people of the district. However, Islam religion spread in the district after 7th Century A.D. Communal harmony and religious tolerance are the remarkable characteristics of the people of the district.

Antiquity and deities:

Antiquity of the temples of Thiruvananthapuram district cannot be determined in terms of age of the idol or structures of the temple. The antiquity of each temple may, therefore, be decided based on legend or history. The number of temples in the district may be more than 2000. It may be difficult to collect data of all temples and to enumerate its details. The deities of the district are mainly Goddess Bhadrakali or Bhagavathy, Lord Vishnu, Lord Siva, Lord Ganapathy, Lord Subramanya, Lord Sastha etc based on various kalpa or sankalpa (concept). Combination of sankalpa such as Sankara-Narayana etc is also there. According to the available sources, Siva temples constitute largest number in the district. About 31 per cent of temples are dedicated to Lord Siva. About 22 per cent of the temples belong to Sastha Kalpa while Durga temples constitute 17 per cent. Temples with 15 per cent of temples fall under Vishnu kalpa; 07 per cent under Ganapathy kalpa; 02 per cent each under Subramanya and Combined kalpa; and 13 per cent fall under others.

Administration:
In ancient periods, King or local chieftains are owned and administered temples. Some of the temples were owned by madams, tharawads or individuals. The present Thiruvananthapuram district was under the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. The area spreading from Kanyakumari at south to Angamali at North was under the regency of Maharaja of Travancore. During the regime of Regent Rani Gouri Lekshmi Bai (1810-1815), foreign supremacy was at its peak and Col.Munro, the British Resident brought all the 1471 temples of Travancore under the control of Government. In 1904, Travancore Religious & Endowment Regulation established control over the temples. In 1922 a separate department was formed exclusively to look after the matters of temples. After independence the Government of Travanocre –Cochin formed Travancore Devaswom Board and Cochin Devaswom Board and administrative control of all temples have been transferred to the Devaswom Boards. Travancore Devaswom Board controls more than 1200 temples of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Idukki and parts of Ernakulam districts. Though majority of temples are under the administrative control of Travancore Devaswom Board, a good number of temples are still governed by Trusts, committees of local people, spiritual organizations, individuals etc.

Temples governed by Travancore Devaswom Board

No.

Name of Temple

Location

Taluk

Concept (Kalpa)

1

Anchumoorthy Temple

Vilaykkad

Chirayinkeezhu

Combined

2

Anchumoorthy Temple

Airur

Chirayinkeezhu

Combined

3

Ardhanareeswara Temple

Koyikkal

Nedumangad

Siva

4

Baladurga Temple

Aniyur

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

5

Balasubramya Temple

Ullur

Thiruvananthapuram

Subramanya

6

Bhadrakali Temple

Thennur

Nedumangad

Durga

7

Bhadrakali Temple

keezhsherimadam

Neyyattinkara

Durga

8

Bhadrakali Temple

Vellayani

Neyyattinkara

Durga

9

Bhagavathy Temple

Koikkal

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

10

Bhagavathy Temple

Palliyarakkavu

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

11

Bhagavathy Temple

Chemmaruthy

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

12

Bhagavathy Temple

Karett

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

13

Bhagavathy Temple

Kappil

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

14

Bhagavathy Temple

Kallampotta

Nedumangad

Durga

15

Bhagavathy Temple

Aruvikkara

Nedumangad

Durga

16

Bhagavathy Temple

Alanthara

Nedumangad

Durga

17

Bhagavathy Temple

Parasuvakkal

Neyyattinkara

Durga

18

Bhagavathy Temple

Mekkolla

Neyyattinkara

Durga

19

Bhagavathy Temple

Alanthara

Neyyattinkara

Durga

20

Bhagavathy Temple

Koyikkal

Neyyattinkara

Durga

21

Bhagavathy Temple

Palliyara

Neyyattinkara

Durga

22

Bhagavathy Temple

Vizhinjam

Neyyattinkara

Durga

23

Bhagavathy Temple

Mannadi

Neyyattinkara

Durga

24

Bhagavathy Temple

Venganur

Neyyattinkara

Durga

25

Bhagavathy Temple

Thonnal

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

26

Devi Temple

Sarkara

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

27

Devi Temple

Thiruvarattukavu

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

28

Devi Temple

Manambur

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

29

Devi Temple

Cherunniyur

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

30

Devi Temple

Mudapuram

Nedumangad

Durga

31

Devi Temple

Perunthara

Nedumangad

Durga

32

Devi Temple

Murynkara

Neyyattinkara

Durga

33

Devi Temple

Vellarada

Neyyattinkara

Durga

34

Devi Temple

Cherupazhinjikkavu

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

35

Devi Temple

Chenthitta

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

36

Devi Temple

Aryasala

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

37

Devi Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

38

Devi Temple

Punnapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

39

Devi Temple

Mudikkittan Nada

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

40

Devi Temple

Palkulangara

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

41

Devi Temple

Shanghumukham

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

42

Devi Temple

Kavinkulangara

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

43

Devi Temple

Kusamuttom

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

44

Durga Temple

Kunthallurkkavu

Chirayinkeezhu

Durga

45

Durga Temple

Kuttarakkal

Neyyattinkara

Durga

46

Durga Temple

Keezhattukavu

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

47

Ganapathy Temple

Kuttichal

Nedumangad

Ganapathy

48

Ganapathy Temple

Thevalakkara

Nedumangad

Ganapathy

49

Ganapathy Temple

Idavur

Neyyattinkara

Ganapathy

50

Ganapathy Temple

Thirunarayanapuram

Neyyattinkara

Ganapathy

51

Ganapathy Temple

Sreevaraham

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

52

Ganapathy Temple

Arasumoodu

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

53

Ganapathy Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

54

Ganapathy Temple

Kammattom, Pattur

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

55

Ganapathy Temple

Palkulangara

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

56

Hanuman Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

57

Hanuman Temple

Palayam

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

58

Indalayappan (Siva) Temple

Thenkarathala

Nedumangad

Siva

59

Janardhana Swamy Temple

Varkala

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

60

Madanthampuran Temple

Anad

Nedumangad

Siva

61

Madaswamy Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

62

Maha Ganapathy Temple

Pazhavangadi

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

63

Maha Vishnu Temple

Kelamangalam

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

64

Maha Vishnu Temple

Arathi

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

65

Maha Vishnu Temple

Kavalyur

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

66

Maha Vishnu Temple

Perumkulathur

Nedumangad

Vishnu

67

Maha Vishnu Temple

Mukhavur

Nedumangad

Vishnu

68

Maha Vishnu Temple

Attipuzha

Nedumangad

Vishnu

69

Maha Vishnu Temple

Vamanapuram

Nedumangad

Vishnu

70

Maha Vishnu Temple

Thrikanapuram

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

71

Maha Vishnu Temple

Verachakram

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

72

Maha Vishnu Temple

Chandramangalam

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

73

Maha Vishnu Temple

Vellur

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

74

Maha Vishnu Temple

Aithiyur

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

75

Maha Vishnu Temple

Thrikulangara

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

76

Maha Vishnu Temple

Thrippaliyur

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

77

Maha Vishnu Temple

Nambyarmoola

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

78

Maha Vishnu Temple

Vevila

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

79

Maha Vishnu Temple

Kesavadichapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

80

Maha Vishnu Temple

Thrivikramamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

81

Maha Vishnu Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

82

Maha Vishnu Temple

Mullassery

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

83

Maha Vishnu Temple

Kurakkod

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

84

Mahadev Temple

Valiya Udayeswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

85

Mahadeva Temple

Kunthallur

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

86

Mahadeva Temple

Kappil

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

87

Mahadeva Temple

Parassala

Neyyattinkara

Siva

88

Mahadeva Temple

Arayur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

89

Mahadeva Temple

Arangil

Neyyattinkara

Siva

90

Mahadeva Temple

Rameswaran

Neyyattinkara

Siva

91

Mahadeva Temple

Koottappana

Neyyattinkara

Siva

92

Mahadeva Temple

Chezhunganur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

93

Mahadeva Temple

Ankode

Neyyattinkara

Siva

94

Mahadeva Temple

Ottasekharamangalam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

95

Mahadeva Temple

Hrishiswaram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

96

Mahadeva Temple

Thaliyadichapuram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

97

Mahadeva Temple

Neeramankara

Neyyattinkara

Siva

98

Mahadeva Temple

Thaliyil

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

99

Mahadeva Temple

Chengallur, Poojappura

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

100

Mahadeva Temple

Kusakkode

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

101

Mahadeva Temple

Valiyasala

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

102

Mahadeva Temple

Sreekanteswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

103

Mahadeva Temple

Goureesapattom

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

104

Mahadeva Temple

Sasthamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

105

Mahadeva Temple

Kunnam

Thiruvananthapuram

siva

106

Mahadeva Temple

Kudappanakkunnu

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

107

Mahadeva Temple

Uliyazhthura

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

108

Mahadeva Temple

Kazhakoottam

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

109

Mahadeva Temple

Thrippapur

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

110

Mahadeva Temple

Kadinamkulam

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

111

Mahadeva Temple

Thirupuram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

112

Mahadeva Temple (Thekkedam)

Enikkara

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

113

Mahadeva Temple(Vadakedam)

Enikkara

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

114

Mahadeve Temple

Pozhiyur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

115

Mahavishnu Temple

Thrikanapuram

Nedumangad

Vishnu

116

Mahavishnu Temple

Kelamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

117

Mahavishnu Temple

Sreedharamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

118

Mithranandapuram Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Combined

119

Nagaraja Temple

Attingal

Chirayinkeezhu

Others

120

Parasurama Temple

Thiruvallom

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

121

Rajarajeswari Temple

Nanthancode

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

122

Ramaswamy Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

123

Sabhapathy Temple

Aryasala

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

124

Sankaranarayana Temple

Navayikulam

Chirayinkeezhu

Combined

125

Sankaranarayana Temple

Thathamala

Neyyattinkara

Combined

126

Sankaranarayana Temple

Kulasekharam

Thiruvananthapuram

Combined

127

Sapthamatha Temple

Kelamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Combined

128

Sastha Temple

Kakkott

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

129

Sastha Temple

Poorappayam

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

130

Sastha Temple

Palakunnu

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

131

Sastha Temple

Vilakkudy

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

132

Sastha Temple

Kulamuttom

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

133

Sastha Temple

Thettiman

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

134

Sastha Temple

Udayakunnam

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

135

Sastha Temple

Cherukunnam

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

136

Sastha Temple

Chenamkode

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

137

Sastha Temple

Varkala

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

138

Sastha Temple

Elakamon

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

139

Sastha Temple

Venkulam

Chirayinkeezhu

Sastha

140

Sastha Temple

Kattal

Nedumangad

Sastha

141

Sastha Temple

Ayanimoodu

Nedumangad

Sastha

142

Sastha Temple

Veeranakavu

Nedumangad

Sastha

143

Sastha Temple

Kuttichal

Nedumangad

Sastha

144

Sastha Temple

Kulappada

Nedumangad

Sastha

145

Sastha Temple

Punalal

Nedumangad

Sastha

146

Sastha Temple

Arasuparambu

Nedumangad

Sastha

147

Sastha Temple

Kurunchilakkode

Nedumangad

Sastha

148

Sastha Temple

Kuttiyani

Nedumangad

Sastha

149

Sastha Temple

Muramel

Nedumangad

Sastha

150

Sastha Temple

Pacha-Palode

Nedumangad

Sastha

151

Sastha Temple

Pankode

Nedumangad

Sastha

152

Sastha Temple

Thalayattumala

Nedumangad

Sastha

153

Sastha Temple

Mathanad

Nedumangad

Sastha

154

Sastha Temple

Kuttur

Nedumangad

Sastha

155

Sastha Temple

Inchivila

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

156

Sastha Temple

Mavelikantan

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

157

Sastha Temple

Ayyankuzhikaavu

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

158

Sastha Temple

Kurunthiyur

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

159

Sastha Temple

Kottamam

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

160

Sastha Temple

Uppazhinji

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

161

Sastha Temple

Venchankulangara

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

162

Sastha Temple

Chathottam

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

163

Sastha Temple

Papchayam

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

164

Sastha Temple

Ramapuram

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

165

Sastha Temple

Thonnamala

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

166

Sastha Temple

Pukilanthara

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

167

Sastha Temple

Vazhichal

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

168

Sastha Temple

Ozhukupara

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

169

Sastha Temple

Thachottukavu

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

170

Sastha Temple

Pottankavu

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

171

Sastha Temple

Manapuram

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

172

Sastha Temple

Anikulath

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

173

Sastha Temple

Karingal

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

174

Sastha Temple

Arangal

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

175

Sastha Temple

Vembannur

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

176

Sastha Temple

Manakkad

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

177

Sastha Temple

Kakkat

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

178

Sastha Temple

Manakkad

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

179

Sastha Temple

Thuruthipally

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

180

Sastha Temple

Choozhampala

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

181

Sastha Temple

Vazhayila

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

182

Sastha Temple

Kunnurkkal

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

183

Sastha Temple

Keezhkunnam

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

184

Sastha Temple

Nagamandalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

185

Sastha Temple

Kurattur

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

186

Sastha Temple

Irumbulingal

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

187

Sastha Temple

Theepatti

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

188

Sastha Temple

Kadinamkulam

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

189

Sastha Temple

Kozhimada

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

190

Sastha Temple

Mulakkod

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

191

Sastha Temple

Pangode

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

192

Satha Temple

Cheriyakavu

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

193

Siva (Udayamarthanda) Temple

Venganur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

194

Siva Temple

Keleswaram

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

195

Siva Temple

Attingal

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

196

Siva Temple

Koduman

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

197

Siva Temple

Puthukunnu

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

198

Siva Temple

Sankaramangalam

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

199

Siva Temple

Pulimath

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

200

Siva Temple

Anakunnam

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

201

Siva Temple

Kulappuram

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

202

Siva Temple

Kurusikode

Chirayinkeezhu

siva

203

Siva Temple

Vayalkulam

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

204

Siva Temple

Nagarur

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

205

Siva Temple

Venkulam

Chirayinkeezhu

Siva

206

Siva Temple

Keezhvanda

Nedumangad

Siva

207

Siva Temple

Nedumon

Nedumangad

Siva

208

Siva Temple

Eliyavur

Nedumangad

Siva

209

Siva Temple

Kuryathi

Nedumangad

Siva

210

Siva Temple

Mundela

Nedumangad

Siva

211

Siva Temple

Edamon

Nedumangad

Siva

212

Siva Temple

Anad

Nedumangad

Siva

213

Siva Temple

Thiruchitur

Nedumangad

Siva

214

Siva Temple

Manikkal

Nedumangad

Siva

215

Siva Temple

Plakkeezhu

Nedumangad

Siva

216

Siva Temple

Manikkode

Nedumangad

Siva

217

Siva Temple

Nellanad

Nedumangad

Siva

218

Siva Temple

Kottakunnam

Nedumangad

Siva

219

Siva Temple

Aynkamam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

220

Siva Temple

Kavuvila

Neyyattinkara

Siva

221

Siva Temple

Pudukulam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

222

Siva Temple

Veyilakom

Neyyattinkara

Siva

223

Siva Temple

Neelakanteswaram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

224

Siva Temple

Thekkumkara

Neyyattinkara

Siva

225

Siva Temple

Vellaral

Neyyattinkara

Siva

226

Siva Temple

Aruvallur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

227

Siva Temple

Alatharakkal

Neyyattinkara

Siva

228

Siva Temple

Deveswaram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

229

Siva Temple

Vazhuhur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

230

Siva Temple

Thrippalavur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

231

Siva Temple

Kolur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

232

Siva Temple

Thrikkadambu

Neyyattinkara

Siva

233

Siva Temple

Thevarkala

Neyyattinkara

Siva

234

Siva Temple

Thrikanjirapuram

Neyyattinkara

siva

235

Siva Temple

Mankaramuttom

Neyyattinkara

Siva

236

Siva Temple

Kayanimangalam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

237

Siva Temple

Vilappil

Neyyattinkara

Siva

238

Siva Temple

Eruthavur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

239

Siva Temple

Keleswaram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

240

Siva Temple

Thaliyur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

241

Siva Temple

Vizhinjam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

242

Siva Temple

Cherubalamandam

Neyyattinkara

Siva

243

Siva Temple

Karakandeswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

244

Siva Temple

Thirunarayanapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

245

Siva Temple

Kamaleswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

246

Siva Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

247

Siva Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

248

Siva Temple

Thaliyur

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

249

Siva Temple

Kapaleeswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

250

Siva Temple

Anandeswaram

Nedumangad

Siva

251

Siva Temple

Pozhiyur

Neyyattinkara

Siva

252

Siva Tmple

Kottiyil

Neyyattinkara

Siva

253

Siva Tmple

Thirumanur

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

254

Siva Tmple

Karur

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

255

Sri Krishna Temple

Neyyattinkara

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

256

Sri Krishna Temple

Attingal

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

257

Sri Krishna Temple

Vilakkinimangalam

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

258

Sri Krishna Temple

Melperoor

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

259

Sri Krishna Temple

Ottur

Chirayinkeezhu

Vishnu

260

Sri Krishna Temple

Pirappancode

Nedumangad

Vishnu

261

Sri Krishna Temple

Parameswaram

Nedumangad

Vishnu

262

Sri Krishna Temple

Maninad

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

263

Sri Krishna Temple

Punnapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

264

Sri Krishna Temple

Palkulangara

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

265

Sri Krishna Temple

Pothencode

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

266

Sri Krishna Temple

Perurkada

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

267

Sri Krishna Temple

Uliyanadu

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

268

Sri Krishna Temple

Eravipuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

269

Sri Krishna Temple

Kulangara

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

270

Sri Krishna Temple

Ramapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

271

Sri Krishnaswamy Temple

Malayinkizhu

Neyyattinkara

Vishnu

272

Subramanya Temple

Keezhattingal

Chirayinkeezhu

Subramanya

273

Subramanya Temple

Kadakkavur

Chirayinkeezhu

Subramanya

274

Subramanya Temple

Vellanad

Nedumangad

Subramanya

275

Subramanya Temple

Thevakonam

Nedumangad

Subramanya

276

Subramanya Temple

Marthandeswaram

Neyyattinkara

Subramanya

277

Subramanya Temple

Puthenchanthai

Thiruvananthapuram

Subramanya

278

Subramanya Temple

Kavallurkonam

Thiruvananthapuram

Subramanya

279

Thampuran Temple

Pottakkal

Neyyattinkara

Others

280

VarahamoorthyTemple

Sreevaraham

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

281

Vettakkorumakan Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

282

Vinayaka Temple

Palayam

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

283

Yogeeswara Temple

Kunnumpuram

Neyyattinkara

Others

Important temples governed by individuals, Trusts, Committees etc.

 

No.

Name of temple

Location

Taluk

Concept (Kalpa)

1

Ayiravalli Temple

Kallara

Nedumangad

Sastha

2

Devi Temple (Mudippura)

Pachallur

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

3

Devi Temple (Panimoola)

Pothencodu

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

4

Devi Temple (Puravi)

Venganur

Neyyattinkara

Durga

5

Devi Temple (Udiyannur)

Maruthankuzhy

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

6

Ganapathy Temple

Thampanoor

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

7

Ganapathy Temple

Sreekanteswaram

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

8

 Ganapathy Temple

Padmatheerthakkara

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

9

Ganapathy Temple

Kumarapuram

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

10

Ganapathy Temple

Medical College

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

11

Ganapathy Temple

Veli-Pozhikkara

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

12

Bhagavathy Temple (Naduthala)

Poojappra

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

13

 Ganapthy Temple

Vazhuthacadu

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

14

 Ganapthy Temple

Nemom

Neyyattinkara

Ganapathy

15

Hanuman Temple

Kazhakkuttam

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

16

Hanuman Temple

Sreevaraham

Thiruvananthapuram

Others

17

 Hauman Temple

Maruthoor

 Neyyattinkara

Others

18

Maha Ganapathy Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

19

Maha Vishnu Temple

Thittamangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

20

Maha Vishnu Temple

Kaimanam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

21

Maha Vishnu Temple (Vaduvotha)

Muttathara

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

22

 Mahadeva Temple 

Kulathoor

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

23

Devi (Chamundy) Temple

Thozhuvamcode

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

24

 Mahadeva Temple 

Kilimanoor

Nedumangad

Siva

25

Mahadeva Temple 

Enikkara

Nedumangad

Siva

26

Padmanabhaswany Temple

Fort

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

27

Sastha Temple

Chowwara

Neyyattinkara

Sastha

28

Sastha Temple

Thycaud

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

29

Sastha Temple

Thaicadu

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

30

Sastha Temple

Karyavattom

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

31

 Sastha Temple

Thampanoor 

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

32

Sita Rama Anjaneya Temple

Chenkottukonam 

Thiruvananthapuram

Combined

33

Siva Temple

Aruvippuram

Neyyattinkara

Siva

34

Devi Temple

Attukal

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

35

Siva Temple (Cave Temple)

Madavurppara

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

36

 Sree Krishna Swami Temple

Rishimangalam

Thiruvananthapuram

Vishnu

37

Vettakkorumakan Temple

Fort, Vanchiyur

Thiruvananthapuram

Sastha

38

Vighneswara Temple

Thampanoor

Thiruvananthapuram

Ganapathy

39

 Viswanatha Temple

Pattom

Thiruvananthapuram

Siva

40

Devi Temple

Pazhanchira

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

41

Devi Temple

Karikkakom

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

42

Devi Temple

Kundamonbhagam

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

43

Devi Temple (Chettikulangara)

Vanchiyur

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

44

Devi Temple (Irukulangara)

Manacaud

Thiruvananthapuram

Durga

In ancient periods, King or local chieftains are owned and administered temples. Some of the temples were owned by madams, tharawads or individuals. However, majority of them were under the administrative control of King or local chieftains. When the foreigners established their power in the area and powers of local rulers faded away, administration of temples was also taken over by them. In 1790, the British Government came forward with certain regulations to control the administration of temples in Malabar region. The first enactment on these lines was the Madras Regulation VII of 1817. Subsequently, the Religious Endowment XX of 1863 was enacted. Since this Act was found to be a failure, the Government brought out another one repealing the Act of 1863. Later in 1927, the Government passed the Madras Hindu Religious Endowment Act (Act II of 1927) and brought temple administration under their control. After independence, the Congress Government of erstwhile Madras State introduced the Madras Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act of 1951 to govern the temples. When the Kerala State was formed and Malabar region formed its part, this Act was made applicable to the temples of that region which includes the present Kasargode district. A Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowment Board was also came into existence. Later the Board was converted into a Department. Till 2008, Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowment Department held control over the temples. In 2008, the Government of Kerala, amended the Act and constituted the Malabar Devaswom Board. Now 89 temples of the district are under the control of the Malabar Devaswom Board.


SREE PADMANABHA SWAMY TEMPLE

Location: Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple is located at the Fort, a place in heart of Thiruvananthapuram town.
Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (1.5 km)
Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (5 km)
Legend/History: The legend concerning the origin of the temple is that Sage Divakara Muni, (another version is that it was Villwamangalath Swamiyar – both are ardent devotees of Lord Maha Vishnu) invited a charming boy who apeared before the Sage to stay with him. The boy accepted the invitation on condition that he would leave the sage on the very moment any displeasure is shown to him. The boy was very naughty. One day he put a salagram stone worshipped by the sage into his mouth. Unable to control his rage, the sage reacted and the boy left on the moment. Soon the sage heard an incorporeal voice that if he wanted to see the child he should come to the Anantha forest. At once the sage realised who the boy was. He set out to find out the Anantha forest and on the way while taking rest under a tree he heard mother from a pulaya (a community belonging to lower strata) hut uttering to her child that unless he stops screaming he would be thrown to the Anantha forest. The sage met the mother and found way to the forest. There he saw an Ilippa tree (Indian Butter tree) fell on the ground transformed into the shape of Anathasayana having a length of 18 miles – the head at Thiruvallam, body at Thiruvananthapuram and feet in Thrippadapuram. It was none but the Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Unable to see the full figure of the Lord, the sage prayed to shrink the size to be not bigger than three times the length of his staff. The Lord fulfilled the desire of his devotee. Later the temple was constructed by the Maharajah, the ruler of the country, on the very spot.
The antiquity of the temple is not known exactly but there were evidences to show that the temple existed prior to 3rd century B.C. Earlier, the idol of deity was made of Iluppa (Indian Butter tree) but it was scarred by fire in 1686 AD. The present idol of Sri Padmanabha was made in 1733 AD using salagramas by Sri Balaranyakonideva. The foundation stone of Gopura was laid during 1565 AD and completed the construction in 1753 AD. The temple is closely associated with the political history of Travancore. On 5th Makaram 925 (ME) (3rd January 1750 AD), Anizham Thirunal Maharaja Marthanda Varma dedicated his entire kingdom, his powers and privileges as a ruler to Sree Padmanabha and pledged that he and his successors would rule the state as an ambassador of the Lord and known as Padamanabhadasa (servant of the Lord Padmanabha). From 225 M.E. (1050 A.D.), the temple and its property were controlled by Thiruvananthapuram Sabha and later by Ettara Yogam with the assistance of Ettuveetil Pillamar. In the first half of the 18th century, in line with matrilineal customs, King Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma suppressed the 700-year stranglehold of the Errara Yogam and Ettuveetil Pillamar and took over the control. Now the temple administration is done by a Trust headed by the royal family of Travancore.
Deity: The principal deity, Sree Padmanabha (Maha Vishnu) is seen in a reclining pose on the three-coiled, five-hooded holy snake Anantha and hence the deity is known as Ananthasayana Sree Padmanabha Swamy. The three doors to the shrine give darshan of the head, naval portion and the feet of the deity. Below the right hand in Chinmudra of the deity there is Sivalinga. A lotus can also be seen on the other hand. A lotus spouts out from the naval portion where Brahma is seated. These symbolise the presence of three powers – creation, preservation and destruction. The 18 ½ feet long idol is made up of 12008 salagrams (stones represent Maha Vishnu) brought on elephant tops from the banks of river Gandhaki of Nepal and plastered with a special mix known as Kadusarkarayogam ( a special mix of lime, granite and mustard in a particular proportion). In the sanctum sanctorum the idols of Sreedevi and Bhoodevi (the consorts of Mahavishnu), Sage Markandeya, Sage Divakara standing and sitting posture of Vishnu, Sage Agasthya under the feet of Sreepadmanabha can also be seen. No oblation is offered to the main deity but it is done to the sitting posture of Vishnu. The place where 12 salagramas are worshipped is equal to a Mahakshethra. In this temple the main deity contains 12008 salagrams and hence equal to 1000 Mahakshethras.
There are 8 Sub-shrines within temple complex dedicated to Lord Narasimha, Lord Sri Krishna, Lord Sastha, Lord Sri Rama, Lord Ganapathy, Lord Hanuman, Lord Garuda, and Kshethrapalan. Of these, the sub-shrine of Sri Krishna is an independent one constructed on the right side of the main temple. It is notable for its antiquity (datable to 11th century). The granite idol of Sri Krishna holding a whip on the right hand and placed the left hand on his thigh is said to be brought from Gujarat by the members of 72 families of Krishnavamsa Kshthriya of Vrishni Sect. The butter offered to Lord Hanuman does neither turn rancid nor melt.
Features of the temple: The temple complex is located in area of seven acres. The temple architecture is a mix of Chera, Chola and Pandya influences. Every part of the temple has its own elegance. The compound wall on the eastern side has 20 feet height whereas it is only 15 feet on the other three sides. The main entrance in the eastern side of the temple is through a multi-storied Gopuram, a replica of Tamil architecture, while others are of Kerala style. The northern entrance is famously known as Swargavathil (gateway to heaven). The seevelippura (corridor) of the temple has 365 stone pillars with beautiful carvings of Vyali-mukha and Deepa lakshmi and variant ornamentation. Each pillar denotes a day of a year. Eight feet long flagstaff is erected in front of the main temple. The Ottakal Mandapa (An open hall made with a single rock) is marvelous. On the northern side of the temple there is a sacred pond known as Padmatheertham.
Festivals: Alpasi Ulsava (celebrated in October-November) and Painguni Utsava (during April-May) are the main festivals. The festivals culminate with the Aarat (holy bath) procession to the Shankumugham Beach. Navaratri is another annual festival celebrated in the temple. The idols of Godess Saraswathi, Munutty Nangai and Lord Kumaraswami are brought to the temple for worship. This festival lasts for 9 days. The biggest festival in this temple is Lakshadeepa (lighting of one lakh lamps) and Murajapa (chanting of prayers and recitation of three Vedas for 56 days). This festival is unique and commences once in 6 years. The last Lakshadeepa was held in the year 2008.


NAVANEETHA KRISHNA SWAMI TEMPLE, NEYYATTINKARA

Location: Neyyattinkara is located 19 km south of Thiruvananthapuram. The temple is situated right on the heart of the Neyyattinkara Municipal town.
Municipality: Neyyattinkara
Village: Neyyattinkara
Nearest Railway Station: Neyyattinkara / Thiruvananthapuram (19 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (24 km)

Legend/History: The temple is associated with associated with the history of Travancore. Before AnizhamThirunal Marthandavarma became the King, the political situation of Venad (erstwhile Travancore) was so worst and a conspiracy to overthrow the monarch was going on. Legend says that Anizham Thirunal Marthandavarma, the crown prince, while fleeing for his life reached Neyyattinkara, was surrounded by his enemies. A boy, who had appeared before him, instructed to hide in a cavity of the nearby jack tree and disappeared. Thus the prince could save his life. The prince could overwhelm his enemies and became the King of Venad. In a dream the King saw the boy, who had saved his life asking whether the King had forgotten him and demanded that a temple be built in his honour. Having understood the boy was none other than the incarnation of Lord Sri Krishna; the King built a temple in honour of the Lord Krishna near the very same jack tree. The jack tree is known as “Ammachi Plavu” (Mother Jack tree). Due to old age the tree has been destroyed but its remnants are preserved. The temple was constructed in 1757 AD (932 ME). The present Gopura in front of the temple has been built by the Travancore Devaswom Board in 1972 AD.

Deity:
The principal deity is Lord Krishna. The idol is made of “Pancha Loha” in the same posture, as he had appeared before the king in his dream. Lord Krishna of the temple is known as Navaneetha Krishna as he is holding butter in both his hands. Real butter is offered while pooja takes place. Once the pooja is over, the butter is distributed among devotees as “Prasadam”. The butter is believed to have divine and medicinal properties. Lord Ganapathy and Lord Naga are the minor deities.
Festivals: The ten-day long festival is celebrated in the month of Meenam (March-April). Ashtami Rohini, Vishu, Swrgawathil Ekadashy in the month of Dhanu (December-January) are the other important festivals.


SRI JANARDHANA SWAMY TEMPLE, VARKALA


Location: Varkala is located 50 km north of Thiruvananthapuram.
Municipality: Varkala
Village: Varkala
Nearest Railway Station: Varkala
Nearest Aiprort: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (55 km)

Legend/History: Once Narada, son of Lord Brahma and a sage who constantly travel the Heaven, Hell and Earth, visited Heaven. Lord Vishnu was also following him unknowingly. As Narada enters Brahma’s court, Brahma perceived Lord Vishnu and prostrated before the Lord. The nine Prajapathis (Progenitors) who were also present on the occasion did not get the vision of Lord Vishnu and they thought that Lord Brahma prostrated before his son Narada. They started ridiculing Brahma for falling at the feet of his son. When Brahma told the true fact they deeply expressed grief and begged for a solution. Brahma asked them to carryout penance at a place in Earth where Narada suggests. Narada threw his Valkalam (the upper garment made out of tree bark) to the earth and the place where the Valkalam fell is known as Varkala. Prajapathis consecrated an idol of Lord Vishnu and started penance there for the prescribed period. This is one of the legends about the origin of the temple. Another legend says that Lord Brhma and Lord Parasurama performed a great yaga at Varkala and this is the reason for the existence of mineral water and lignite terrain at Varkala. The temple is considered equal to Gaya. It is believed that this renowned Vaishnavite shrine was existed as early in 12th century A.D. as evidenced from the mentions in Syanandura Puranam, written in 1167 A.D. Unnuneeli Sandesha another literary work written in 14th century A.D. also mentioned about this temple. The present form of temple architecture also show that the temple dates back to 12th century A.D. Available records are also show that the temple was constructed in the year 1252 A.D. Umayamma Rani, who ruled Venad during 1677 to 1685 brought this temple directly under the control of her kingdom. Today its administration is with the Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: The principal deity is Lord Krishna otherwise known as Janardhanaswamy. The idol is made of black granite (Krishnasila) in a standing posture and four armed. Lord Siva and Sree Sastha (Lord Ayyappa) are the other deities.
Special feature: Varkala is considered as one of the sacred place for performing Bali rites like Kashi or Rameswaram. A large number of people gather here on the new moon day in the month of Karkadakom (July/August) for observing Bali rites. This ritual is performed on the nearby beach of Arabian Sea. Many performed this rite daily in the temple.
Festival: Only one festival is celebrated in the temple. It is in the month of Meenam (March/April) that last for ten days.


SIVA TEMPLE, ARUVIPPURAM


Location: Aruvippuram is located 03 km south-west to Neyyattinkara on the banks of River Neyyar.
Panchayat: Parumkadavila
Village: Parumkadavila
Nearest Railway Station: Neyyattinkara (03km) / Thiruvananthapuram (21 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (24 km)

History: Aruvippuram Shiva Temple is of great historical and social importance. At a time when Brahmins alone were permitted to consecrate deities, Sree Narayana Guru the great social reformer had installed a rock stating that he was consecrating the idol of Lord Siva. He had done this revolutionary act in 1888 A.D. (Malayalam year 1063) on a Sivarathri day. By installing a rock procured from the Neyyar River as Shivalinga at Aruvippuram he was breaking the centuries old Brahmin monopoly and starting a revolution in the history of Kerala which ultimately resulted in the spiritual and social awakening of the down trodden and oppressed class of society. Gradually, Aruvippuram became a pilgrim center. In the year 1889, Aruvippuram Kshetra Yogam had formed under the leadership of Sri.N.Kumaran Asan, famous poet and ardent disciple of Sree Narayana Guru to look after the administration of temple and to extend proper service to the visiting pilgrims. In 1903, a special meeting of Aruvippuram Kshetra Yogam had decided to form an organization for the progress and development of Ezhava community. Thus, on 1903, May 15, Aruvippuram Kshetra Yogam has been registered as Aruvippuram Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam in accordance with the Indian Companies Act. Sree Narayana Guru was the permanent chairman of Yogam. N. Kumaranasan was elected as the General Secretary. He held this post till 1919. The temple is owned by Sivagiri Mutt.

Deity: Lord Shiva is the main deity. Separate shrines for Lord Ganapathy and Sree Narayana Guru are also located in the temple complex.
Festival: The main festival of the temple is Shivrathri. Sree Narayana Guru Jayanthi is also celebrated in a grand manner.


MAHADEVA TEMPLE, PARASSALA

Location: Parassala is located 30 km south of Thiruvananthapuram on the National Highway 47 adjoining to Tamil Nadu. This is an ancient major temple one located in the extreme south of Kerala.
Panchayat: Parassala
Village: Parassala
Nearest Railway Station: Parassala / Thiruvananthapuram (30 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (35 km)

Legend/History: Three is no authentic records to show the historical evidences about the origin and antiquity of the temple. Legend says that Parassal was once a dense forest. Once the sickle of Parayi (a lay of low caste) lady happened to struck on a rock and a divine light appeared while she was cutting bamboo reeds from the forest. The frightened lady screamed and her companion found a Silalinga there. Hearing the news, the local people decided to conduct a devaprasna (an astrological method to find out solution) and in accordance with the direction of the astrologers, they established a temple to consecrate the idol. The place where Parayi had seen the sila linga (rock image) was later known as Parayi Sila which was later transformed as Parassala. Another legend says that it was here where Lord Siva gave darshan (appear) to Parassini, an ardant devotee, and Lord Siva remained here in the form as appeared before Parassini. Whatever the legend says, the temple is famous for its rare rites and ceremonies and from time immemorial. Entry was allowed to all sects in the community irrespective of caste or creed especially Paraya community have the privilege of participation for the commencement of important rituals in the temple from ancient times onwards. The right to supply materials for flag hoisting ceremony in connection with the temple festival is vested with them. The temple is constructed in a unique architectural style. Among the temples of south Kerala, the temple stood next to Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple of Thiruvananthapuram for its architectural beauty and large number of rare and beautiful stone sculptures.

Deity: Lord Mahadeva (Lord Siva) is the principal deity. Goddess Parvathy, Lord Ganapathy, Lord Vishnu are the other deities. Poojas (rites related to worship) are performed five times daily.
Festival: Annual festival for 10 days in the month of Medam (April-May) and Sivarathri are the major festivals.


MAHADEVA TEMPLE, OTTASEKHARAMANGALAM


Location: Ottasekharamangalam is situated 30 km south-east of Thiruvananthapuram in the Kattakkara -Neyyar Dam route and 15 km north to Neyyattinkara.
Panchayat: Ottasekharamangalam
Village: Ottasekharamangalam
Nearest Railway Station: Neyyattinkara (15 km) / Thiruvananthapuram (30 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (35 km)

Legend/History: No historical records are there to indicate the origin of the temple. Legend says that Sage Khara fetched four sila-lingas from the River Gandaki (in Nepal) and he consecrated three of them at Vaikom, Ettumanur and Kaduthuruthi. The remaining one was consecrated on the banks of Chittar near Neyyattinkara. In Malayalam Otta means an isolated one and Sekhara means collection. Since Khara installed the Ottasekharan [idol (of Lord Siva in the form of sila-linga) that was isolated from others], the place came to be known as Ottasekharamangalam. Sage Khara installed the idol at the last moments of the auspicious hour; the deity appeared in Roudra Bhava (fierce nature) and hence two idols - one of Lord Siva in Soumya Bhava (calm posture) and the other of Lord Vishnu to reduce the fierce attitude of the former. Thus the temple has three principal deities with equal importance.

The construction of all the three sanctum sanctorum and overall renovation were done during the reign of Sri Mulam Thirunal Maharaja (1885–1924). In 1898 three flag masts were erected. This is the only temple in South Kerala having three flag masts. (The other two are Thiruvegappura and Chinakkathur temples in Palakkad District). In ancient period, the temple was owned and managed by the major Nair families of the region, but later it was transferred to the Travancore Devaswom Board.
Deities: Lord Siva (Mahadeva) in the form of Sivalinga is the principal deity. Shrine of Lord Siva in fierce posture is at the north end of the temple complex and Lord with calm posture at the south end. Lord Vishnu’s shirine is at the north of Siva shrines. Lord Sastha, Lord Ganapathy, Saptha Mathrukkal (Seven holy mothers – Brahmini, Maheswari, Kaumari, yshnavi, Varahi, Indrani, Chamunda) are the minor deities. Poojas (rites related to worship) are held three times a day.
Festivals: Annual festival of the temple is held in the month of Dhanu (December-January). Sivarathri, Ashtami Rohini, Vinayaka Chadurthi are also celebrated here apart from 41 days Mandala Pooja.

SREEKRISHNA TEMPLE, MALAYINKEEZHU


Location: Malayinkeezhu is located 15 km east of Thiruvananthapuram.
Panchyat: Malayinkeezhu
Village:Malayinkeezhu
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (15 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (20 km)

Legend/History: The temple is one of the ancient Vaishnavite temples of the district. It is believed that Villwamangalath Swamiyar had consecrated the idol of the temple. The temple is inadvertently called SreeVallabha Temple. The deity of the Malayinkeezhu temple resembles in all its characteristics of the idol of Sree Vallabha Temple of Thiruvalla. It is also pertinent to note that the administrators of Thiruvalla temple (Mecheri, Vilakkinimangalam and Ilamon Namboodiries) were the administrators of this temple also. It is believed that Kannasa Madhava Panicker translated the Bhagavat Gita into Malayalam during the period between 1400 and 1500 A.D., while he stayed and worshipped in the temple. This was the first ever translation of Bhagavat Gita into any of the Indian languages. Historical evidences show that the temple was renovated in the year 1795 A.D. Till recently, women devotees were not allowed to enter into the temple.

Deity: Though the temple is known as Sri Krishna Temple, Lord Mahavishnu is the presiding deity. Lord Siva, Lord Ganapathy, Lord Sastha are the minor deities.

Festival: Annual festival is celebrated for 8 days in the month of Meenom (March-April). Astami Rohini, Vishu, Ekadashy are also celebrated.

BHAGAVATHY TEMPLE, VIZHINJAM


Location: Vizhinjam is located 16 km south of Thiruvananthapuram and near to the Kovalam beach, the internationally renowned tourist centre.

Panchayat: Vizhinjam
Village: Vizhinjam
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (16 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (12 km)

Legend/History: Vizhinjam was the capital town and port of the Aye dynasty that ruled the region extended from Thiruvallom, near Thiruvananthapuram in the north and to Kanyakumari in the south. It is believed that the temple was constructed by the Aye dynasty. Some believed that the temple was constructed either by Cholas or by Pandyas as both these dynasty conquered and established their supremacy over Vizhinjam. It is doubtful whether the temple was constructed by Cholas or Pandyas. However, the architectural style shows that it was in vogue during 8th century A.D. Another temple dedicated to Lord Siva which has the same features is also near to the Bhagavathy temple. Since the temple has been constructed in a style other than that of Kerala, the Archeological Department declared the temple as a protected monument in 1966. The temple is under the administrative control of the Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: The temple has two shrines of equal importance. Goddess Bhagavathy faces north and Lord Siva faces west are the principal deities. Though the temple is known as Bhagavathy temple, it is dedicated to the Saptha Mathrukkal (Seven holy mothers – Brahmini, Maheswari, Kaumari, yshnavi, Varahi, Indrani, and Chamunda). A significant feature of the temple is that Rurujith system of worship is being followed in the temple, which is very rare in Kerala temples. Pooja is performed only once in a day.

Festival: Karthika festival during the month of Vrichika (November-December) is celebrated in the temple.

BHADRAKALI TEMPLE, VELLAYANI

Location: Vellayani is located 10 km south-east of Thiruvananthapuram on the eastern bank of Vellayani Lake.
Panchayat: Kalliyur
Village:
Kalliyur
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (10 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (15 km)

Legend/History: Legend says that one Kollan (blacksmith) named after Kelan Kulasekhara saw a frog with divine spirit of Goddess Bhagavathy near Vellayani Lake. He caught the divine frog with the help of his assistant who belong to a low caste. They informed the matter to the Nair chieftains of the locality and with their help Kelan Kulasekhara consecrated the Mudi (the idol) in which divine spirit is evoked. The right to perform Uchabali (a ritual connected with festival of the temple) is still hold by these Nair families. Priest of the temple is not belonging to Brahmin community but a selected person belonging to the Kollan (blacksmith) community. Kelan Kulasekhara is also worshipped as a minor deity of the temple. His shrine is known as Brahmasthanam. Poojas (worship rituals) to the principal deity would be started only after lights are litat Brahmasthanam. Earlier the temple was owned and managed by the Nair families of the locality. Now the temple is under the management of Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: Goddess Bhadrakali is presiding deity. The wooden idol of the Goddess is the largest one among the idols of Kerala temples. Though there are no idols worship is done for Lord Siva and Lord Ganapathy.

Time of worship: The temple opens only on Sunday, Tuesday and Friday. Time of worship is from 12.00 hrs to 14.00 hrs.

Festival: Among the Durga (Bhagavathy/Bhadrakali) temples, it was here the festival starts first and concludes last. Kaliyoot is the main festival that celebrated for long 41 days starts in the month of Meenom (March-April).

PARASURAMA TEMPLE, THIRUVALLAM

 

Location: Thiruvallam is located 7 km south of Thiruvananthapuram on the Thiruvananthapuram-Kovalam route. It is situated within the Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation limit.

Village: Thiruvallam
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (7 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (5 km)

Legend/History: This is the one and only temple where Lord Parasurama, the 6th incarnation of Lord Maha Vishnu is worshipped as principal deity. Lord Parasurama is worshipped at Thrikkariyur, Payyannur and Thrikkandiyur temples, but only as a minor deity. This the only temple in Kerala where all Trinities (Lord Brahma, Lord Maha Vishnu – in the form of 6th incarnation as Parasurama – and Lord Siva) are worshipped with equal importance.

According to legend, Kerala is the creation of Lord Parasurama and hence a temple dedicated to Him is quite appropriate. It is believed that Sage Sankaracharya, the great exponent of Hinduism, had consecrated the idols of the Trinities. The legend says that Sage Sankaracharya visited Thiruvallom to perform oblation rites of his mother. Lord Brahma, Lord Parasurama, and Lord Siva were present at the occasion. After performing the rites, Sage Sankaracharya consecrated the idols of all these Lords using clay of the nearby river (Karamana River). It is also said that Lords had given an assurance to the Sage that anybody for whom the oblation rites are done here, their souls would get salvation. Thiruvallam is thus famous for oblation rites. It is also believed that the Aye Kings who ruled South Kerala in ancient period had constructed the temple. According to Purananooru, a Sangha period literature, Aye kingdom spread from Thiruvallam in the north and Kanyakumari in the south. In ancient period scholars were awarded Bhatta title at the temple. This practice discontinued in 1936 A.D. Two rock edicts of 1224 AD and 1237 AD found in the temple complex narrate the procedure to be followed in respect of daily rituals, offerings, giving food to Brahmins and monthly rituals.

Deity: Lord Brahma, Lord Parasurama, Lord Siva are the principal deities. No pooja is offered to Lord Brahma. Lord Malsyamoorthy, Lord Ganapathy, Lord Subramonia, Lord Sri Krishna are the minor deities.

Festival: Annual festival of the temple is held in the month of Thulam. Karkidaka Vavu [new moon day of the Malayalam month Karkidakam (July-August)] is most important. Devotees perform bali ritual on that day at the temple premises after taking a dip in the holy water. Sivarathy, Parasurama Jayanthi are the other important festivals.

MAHADEVA TEMPLE, VALIYASALA

 


Location: Valiyasala is located within one km from Thiruvananthapuram railway station.
Municipality: Thiruvananthapuram Valiyasala
Village: Thycaud
Narest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (6 km)

Legend/History: In ancient period the temple is known as Kanthalloor Mahadeva temple. The temple has a history of supporting centres of learning. The Kanthalloor Sala was supported in its activities by the temple. Kanthalloor Sala which could be equated to the Nalanda and Takshasila attracted scholars and researchers from all over the country. According to official records of the Padmanabhaswamy temple, Kanthalloor Sala dates back to the 7th century AD. Chola inscriptions of 985 A.D. also refer to Kanthalloor. An inscription of Rajendra Chola says that the temple came into existence before 1045 AD. In Anathapuri varnanam written in 7th century A.D., there is mention about the temple and Kanthalloorsala. The earliest record about the Kanthalloor Sala is the Parthivapuram Pattayam (a historical record) issued during 866 A.D. From this, it can be seen that the temple existed prior to 7th century A.D. Large halls made of rock slabs and pillars of the temple complex were once used as class rooms. It is said that the Ettuveettil Pillamar used the temple as a centre of conspiracy against Marthanda Varma, the crown prince and to organize internal revolt in Venad. Maharaja Marthanda Varma renovated the temple in 1749 A.D. In ancient period, women devotees were not allowed to enter into the temple; but now such restriction exists. The temple administration is with the Travancore Devaswom Board.
Deity: The temple has three shrines.Main shrine is dedicated to Lord Siva. Lord Rudra Siva or Brahma Siva and Lord Maha Vishnu are the other two deities. Some believe that the Brahma Siva is Lord Brahma Himself. Lord Ganapathy, Lord Sastha, Lord Subramanya, Lord Sri Krishna, Goddess Durga are the minor deities.
Festival: Annual festival for 10 days is celebrated in the month of Kumbha (February-March).


THRIMOORTHY TEMPLE, MITHRANANDAPURAM


Location: The temple is located on the western side of Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, Fort, Thiruvananthapuram.
Municipality: Thiruvananthapuram Corporation (Fort Ward)
Village: Vanchiyur
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (1 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (5 km)

Legend/History: This is the only temple in Kerala where devotees can worship all the Trinities (Lord Brahma, Lord Maha Vishnu and Lord Siva). No authentic records are there to know the origin and antiquity of the temple. However, the temple is as old as Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple. Legend says that Villwamangalath Swamiyar consecrated the idols of the temple. Previously this was a subsidiary unit of Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple. The administrators of erstwhile Travancore kingdom used to worship in the temple before they took important decision. According to Syanandura Purana, the temple was constructed in the year 1168 A.D. Historical records show that the temple was renovated in the year 1196 A.D. and some land was submitted to the deities in 1344 AD. The temple was again renovated in the year 1748 by Maharaja Marthanda Varma. Earlier, the temple was under the control of Ettara Yogam. Now temple administration is vested with the Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: Lord Brahma, Lord Maha Vishnu and Lord Siva are the principal deities. Lord Ganapathy is the minor deity.

MAHADEVA TEMPLE, KAZHAKOOTTAM


Location: Kazhakoottam is located 18 km north of Thiruvananthapuram. N.H.47 passes through Kazhakoottam.
Panchayat: Kazhakoottam
Village: Kazhakoottam
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (18 km)
Nearest Airpot: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (15 km)

Legend/History: Kazhakoottam was famous as the home land of Kazhakoottathu Pillai, a prominent among the Ettuveettil Pillamar of erstwhile Venad Kingdom. This ancient temple is one of the major temples and one of the 108 Siva Temples of Kerala. No historical evidences are there to trace the origin and antiquity of the temple. It is believed that the temple was established during 10th century A.D. Available records indicate that renovation of the temple was done in the year 1470 A.D. Obvisously, the temple does exist before 1470 A.D. Marthanda Varma Maharaja who ruled Travancore during 1729-58 had constructed the present thri-thala (three storied) sree kovil (sanctum sanctorum), shrines of minor deities, and gopura. There is another small shrine dedicated to Lord Siva. It is believed that Kazhakoottathu Pillai had constructed this temple. The administration of the temple was vested with Chitur Mutt and Mambally Mutt, two Namboodiri families. Later it was transferred to the Tharavad of Kazhakoottathu Pillai. Now the temple is governed by Travancore Devaswom Board. The temple complex covers an area of 4½ acres of land which is the second largest in Thiruvananthapuram district, the first being Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple complex.

Deity: Lord Siva in the form Sivalinga is the principal deity. The idol is a large one haing 8¼ feet height and 5 feet perimeter. One-third portion of the idol can be seen outside and two-third are below the ground level. Lord Ganapathy, Lord Maha Vishnu, Lord Sri Krishna are the other idols. An idol of Lord Sastha is also installed, but it is outside of Maryada (outer wall). Pooja (worship ritual) is done for five times daily.

Festival: Annual festival of the temple is celebrated for 10 days in the month of Medam (April-May).

SARKARA DEVI TEMPLE, CHIRAYINKEEZHU


Location: Chirayinkeezhu is located 40 km (by road) north-west of Thiruvananthapuram. The temple is located on the western side of the rail line.
Panchayat: Chirayainkeezhu
Village: Sarkara
Nearest Railway station: Chirayinkeezhu / Varkala (13 Km) /Thiruvananthapuram (28 km)

Legend/History: There is no historical record to trace the exact date of origin and antiquity of the temple. However, there are evidences to show that the temple existed centuries ago. Travancore Palace records say that the site for the construction of the temple was purchased in the year 1599 A.D. during the reign of Thrippappur Prince Vira Ravi Varma (1588-60 A.D.). In ancient days, the place was known as Charkaravattom. It is said that Maharaja Marthandavarma started his journey to conquer Kayamkulam after offering worship to Goddess of Sarkara and pledged that he would offer Kaliyoottu festival if he won the war. He won the war and assured he offered the ritual Kaliyoottu in a grand manner. This festival still continues. The temple is associated with Kodungallur Bhagavathy temple. Sarkara Kovilakom one of the royal family of Kodungallur is related with Sarkara Devi temple. The temple is owned and managed by the Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: Goddess Bhagavathy is the principal deity. Lord Veerabhadra, Lord Naga, Goddess Yakshi Amma are the minor deities.

Festival: Meena Bharani, the annual festival is celebrated for 10 days in the month of Meenom (March-April).

A unique offering known as Thookkam is held on the last day of the festival. Kaliyoot ritual is performed just before the commencement of annual festival.

SANKARANARAYANA TEMPLE, NAVAYIKULAM


Location: Navayikkulam is located 40 km north of Thiruvananthapuram on NH 47.
Panchayat: Navayikulam
Nearest Railway Station: Varkala (8 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airpot (45 km)

Legend/History: Sankaranarayana Temple is one of the famous temples of Kerala. In other temples dedicated to Sankaranarayana the deity is appeared in the form of Sivalinga. But here the idol is a joint image of Lord Siva and Lord Narayana (Lord Vishnu). Historical records say that this ancient temple, the exact date of origin is unknown, had been renovated by Udayamarthanda Varma who ruled Venad during 1383-1444. Legend says that the region was once belonged to Nagas and their chief named Pandu established the temple. Earlier the temple was owned by Moosads (Namboodiri) and taken over by king of Venad. Now the temple is under the control of Travancore Devaswom Board.

Deity: Lord Sanakaranarayana is the principal deity. Lord Gnapathy, Lord Sastha, Goddess Bhagavathy, Lord Hanuman are the minor deities.

Festival: Annual festival is celebrated for 10 days in the month of Medam (April-May).

MAHA VISHNU TEMPLE, VAMANAPURAM

Location: Vamanapuram is located 30 km north to Thiruvananthapuram between Thiruvananthapuram and Kottarakkara.
Panchayat: Vamanapuram
Village: Vamanapuram
Nearest Railway Station:Varkala (20 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport

Deity: Lord Maha Vishnu is the principal deity; but worshipped under the sankalpa (concept) of Vamana, the 5th incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Lord Siva and Lord Naga are the minor deities.

Festival: Annual festival is celebrated for 8 days in the month of Kumbha (February-March).

ATTUKAL DEVI TEMPLE, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

Location: Attukal is located 4 km south-east of Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station.
Municipality: Thiruvananthapuram Corporation
Village: Manacaud
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananathapuram (04 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (08 km)

Legend: Legend says that Attukal Bhagavathy is the divinised form of Kannaki, the heroine of famous Chilapathikaram, a Tamil work written by Elenkovadikal. Kannaki is supposed to be the incarnation of Parvathy, the consort of Lord Siva. It is believed that after the destruction of Madurai, Kannaki left for Kodungalloor took a halt at Attukal. The legend continues that the Goddess Parvathy revealed herself as a young girl to an ardent devotee of Mulluveettil family who was performing his rituals in the river Killi. The young girl requested help to cross the river. Impressed by her charming conduct, the man helped to her cross the river and invited to his house nearby. After spending some time in his house young girl vanished mysteriously. That night the Goddess Bhagavathy appeared before the man in his dream and demanded that he should establish an abode in the near Kavu (sacred grove) and consecrate the Goddess. The next day man went to the Kavu and consecrated an idol of the Goddess. Later, local devotees renovated the Kavu and built a temple and installed idol of the Deity. The temple is governed by the Attukal Bhagavathy Temple Trust.
Deity: Goddess Bhagavathy (Bhadrakali) with four arms, bearing weapons of destruction in each, like spear, sword, skull, shield etc is the principal deity. Lord Ganapathy and Lord Shiva are the other deities.
Time of worship: From 04.30 to 12.30 and from 17.00 to 210.30 hrs daily.
Festival: The Pongala is the important festival of Attukal Bhagavathy Temple. The offering of Pongala is a special temple ritual prevailing in the southern part of Kerala.The festival lasts for ten days in the month of Kumbham (February–March). Ponkala ritual is offered on the ninth day of the festival. The ceremony is exclusively confined to women and found a place in the Guinness book of world records as the largest congregation of women in the world. It is estimated that more than 2.5 million women devotees participate in the ritual from different parts of Kerala and outside. Kuthiyottam by boys and Thalappoli by girls are two important rituals performed during the festival. Sivarathry, Karthika, Vinayaka Chadurthy are the other festivals.


MADAVOORPARA ROCK CUT TEMPLE

Location: Madavoorpara is locaoted 17 km north of Thiruvananthapuram.
Panchayat: Iroopara
Village: Iroopara
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (17 km)
Nearest Airpot: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (20 km)

Legend/History: The antiquity and origin of the temple can be determined based on legends and hearsay. One of the legends about the origin of the cave temple says that the shrine was built by a Buddhist monk centuries ago. Some believe that the temple was built by Jains. Rock cut temples are one of the main styles of Kerala architecture during ancient period and it is believed that the temple was constructed during 7-9 century AD. This cave temple is found at the mid portion of the rock. To reach the shrine, one has to climb more than 200 steps. The images and idols are carved on the walls in relief style. There is an ancient vattezhuth inscription near the shrine. The Madavoorpara temple is managed by Sree Rama Dasa Mission, Thiruvananthapuram. The temple premise is declared as a protective area by the Archeology Department, Government of Kerala.
Deities: Lord Siva (in form of sivalinga) is the principal deity. Lord Ganapathy and Lord Subramanya are the other deities.


MAHA GANAPATHY TEMPLE, PAZHAVANGADI


Location: Pazhavangadi is located at East Fort in the heart of Thiruvananthapuram City hardly 1.5 Km from the Central Railway Station. The temple is situated very near to the famous Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.

Municipality: Thiruvananthapuram Corporation (Fort)
Village: Vanchiyur
Nearest Railway Station: Thiruvananthapuram (1.5 km)
Nearest Airport: Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (5 km)

History: Pazhavangadi Ganapati Temple is one of the main temples in Thiruvananthapuram. The idol of Maha Ganapathy was originally worshipped by a soldier of Nair Brigade (Travancore Military), garrisoned at Padmanabhapuram. This deity became a favourite deity to all military personnel. When the capital was shifted to Thiruvananthapuram from Padmanabhapuram in 1795, the garrison was also shifted and the idol consecrated at Pazhavangai adjacent to the Fort. When the Nair Brigade was integrated with Travancore Army first and then with the Indian Army, the administration of the temple was transferred to the Madras Regiment. The temple sculptures include 32 different forms of Lord Ganesha
Deity: Lord Ganapathy is the presiding deity. Deity is seated and worshipped here with right leg folded; Godess Durga, Lord Ayyappa and Nagaraja are the other deities.
Offering: The unique and main offering to the deity is breaking coconuts for fulfillment of any desire or for removal of obstacles.
Festivals: Vinayaka Chaturthi, Vijaya Dasami, Sivarathri, Vishu are the festivals